Activity Traits-copy-with-spaces Expanded

Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Sedentarism, or a lifestyle lacking in physical activity, is unfortunately very common. Among the risks of physical inactivity are cognitive decline and shorter lifespan. Walk at least 30 minutes/day. 

PMID

21079443 18185033 24670469 10213549 10325447 15488874 19818961 17356695
17434289 26043189 18823527 25502880 18976728 19299407 19336475 19377787
19541455 19668339 19936222 20682755 20832063 22042884

 

Endurance Athleticism

Endurance athleticism enables long, sustained periods of physical exertion, and is associated with improved energy efficiency. 

PMID

18043716 12879365 19237423 19544227 20005538 20936592 21407828 21542061
25761735 26324221 22916217 23681449 20044471 24240283 23358679

 

Power Athleticism

Power athleticism enables increased muscle contractile force. Accordingly, it is associated with improved sprint speed and muscle performance.

PMID

21079443 18185033 24670469 10213549 10325447 15488874 19818961 17356695
17434289 26043189 18823527 25502880 18976728 19299407 19336475 19377787
19541455 19668339 19936222 20682755 20832063 22042884

 

Muscle Recovery

Balancing muscle recovery time and exercise sessions is critical in building strength and fitness. Avoid alcohol and ensure adequate sleep and nutrition to facilitate faster recovery.

PMID

18043716 12879365 19237423 19544227 20005538 20936592 21407828 21542061
25761735 26324221 22916217 23681449 20044471 24240283 23358679

 

Adrenaline Response to Exercise

Exercise activates the "fight or flight" response, leading to the release of adrenaline. Increased adrenaline secretion from exercise may prevent tumor growth.

PMID

17008817 16878403 18729643 15673663 17211439 15901785 16869230 26549298
25394948 17146014 19278671 16857316 19417742 19071221 12595695 20071037
20070134 21120493 21130573 22337560 22528689 17299513 17483451 18213617
18235427 18436194 18755576 20627703 20728009 22024485 23269216 23278923
23440431 23715639 22900954 22258110

 

Noradrenaline Response to Exercise

Noradrenaline acts in the brain to increase vigilance and memory formation. Systemically, it acts to increase heart rate, glucose release, and blood flow to skeletal muscles.

PMID

17008817 16878403 18729643 15673663 17211439 15901785 16869230 26549298
25394948 17146014 19278671 16857316 19417742 19071221 12595695 20071037
20070134 21120493 21130573 22337560 22528689 17299513 17483451 18213617
18235427 18436194 18755576 20627703 20728009 22024485 23269216 23278923
23440431 23715639 22900954 22258110

 

Respiratory Sensitivity to Pollution and Smoke

Respiratory sensitivity to pollution refers to an individual's relative likelihood of developing a pulmonary condition when chronically exposed to air pollution or smoke from any source.

PMID

15612961 18988661 18709160 24465030 22572643 18326615 17823442 12153964
11553769 18511640

 

Temperature Regulation During Exercise

Core body temperature regulation influences the subjective feeling of pleasure during exercise, as well as performance. If you overheat often, try swimming or wear breathable athletic wear.

PMID

22899923 20407090

 

Circadian Rhythm

Your circadian rhythm is your body's natural clock. Some people are delayed, meaning they wake up and sleep later, some advanced, meaning they wake and sleep earlier, and some are intermediate.

PMID

23034908

 

Heart Rate Response to Exercise Training

An individual's heart rate response to exercise training refers to how quickly daily exercise training can reduce resting heart rate and improve cardiovascular health.

PMID

22899923 20407090

Fast Twitch Muscle

Fast twitch muscles produce greater contractile force, therefore influencing strength, speed, and energy expenditure.

PMID

18043716 12879365 19237423 19544227 20005538 20936592 21407828 21542061
25761735 26324221 22916217 23681449 20044471 24240283 23358679

 

Plasma Homocysteine Response to Exercise

Homocysteine is an amino acid implicated in cardiovascular disease and dementia. Individuals at risk of elevated homocysteine can modify the association by maintaining high cardio fitness.

PMID

18162478 18789576 18483342 18672474 21489764 20390408 19336565 19744961
21178087 21255267 22015309 22103680 22649255 17115239 18098291 18199722
18708408 18842806 19330901 7563456 11382721 25590290 23440809 22884409
22652362 16183962 12446535 12829553

 

Risk of Low Bone Mineral Density

Certain variants in the Vitamin D receptor can predispose individuals to low bone density. This risk can be offset with frequent consumption of vitamin D, calcium, and daily physical activity.

PMID

8845602 22193625 23700563 23134477 22422157 17903296 22193625 10931085
9525336

 

Propensity for Inflammation

Inflammation liberates, and is potentiated by, reactive oxygen species. A Mediterranean diet can reduce inflammation, and frequent consumption of vitamin C and E reduce oxidative stress.

PMID

22572643 18326615 17823442 18326615 12153964 16002077 26903639 22732554
11553769 18511640

end